All You Need to Know about Laser Eye Surgery

Hello and welcome to Turkey, the eye health center of the world. I am not exaggerating when I say this.

Turkey is in the position of health tourism in the world today and eye operations are one of the most demanded services of this sector.

The fact that more than one third of the patients receiving health care services in Turkey, which has a population of more than 80 million, come from abroad will explain better what I mean. What makes Turkey such a center is the hospitals equipped with the latest devices and technologies, as well as the world-renowned experts accompanying them and the very reasonable prices.

My name is Mert, in a few sentences I would like to tell you why I am writing this article. I have astigmatism in my eyes and I have been wearing glasses since I was little. I have never used contact lenses because the idea of ​​putting something in my eye frightens me. I've been thinking about correcting my eye disorder with laser surgery for years, but I didn't dare. Because our eyes are perhaps our most important organs, aren't they? Many people around me had laser treatment and tried to convince me for years, but I could not decide.

In the past weeks, when my glasses were broken once again, I seriously started to research this subject. I talked to experts, visited hospitals. On this page, I will share with you what I have learned in this process. There are some things, the more you learn, the more your fear and nervousness increase. This is not the case at all, as I researched and learned more, my fear disappeared.

In this article, you will find everything you wonder about laser eye operations, especially different techniques, operations and healing processes. At the end of the page, I have added a "Frequently Asked Questions" section that I have compiled from both my curiosity and the questions I have encountered in my research. So on this page you will find answers to all your questions. You can find the article I wrote about eye diseases and surgeries here.



What is Laser Eye Surgery?

The deterioration of our eyes is a fact that we all know and many people experience. These diseases are myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, presbyopia and cataracts, which are experienced when the cornea cannot drop the image properly on the lens or the lens becomes opaque due to genetic or external reasons. These disorders, which people have experienced for centuries, were corrected for a long time with glasses and then with blade surgery. The application of laser technology to eye surgeries in 1988 changed everything.

In the meantime, laser techniques have increased and become much more perfect. Laser surgeries performed without blades take much less time, are more successful and have shorter recovery times. The margins of error are almost nonexistent. So currently the most reliable method. These cutting-edge technologies have also eliminated pain and aches. Hurray!

In short, laser eye surgery is the process of completely computer-controlled laser devices changing the shape of the cornea, which is the transparent layer of the eye, to correct visual disturbances. It is also known as "Excimer laser surgery" because of the most widely used laser technique and has been used successfully in the treatment of eye disorders for more than 30 years. When these rays come into contact with the transparent corneal layer at the front of the eye, they break the chemical bonds that bind the corneal molecules together, thus destroying that part on the surface of the cornea.

Since this event is a photochemical process, it does not harm any tissue of the eye, and its effect does not even penetrate the inner parts of the eye, because it loses all its effect when it encounters tears or any liquid. So there's nothing to be afraid of.

There are many different types of laser operations, which I will explain below. These are LASIK-iLASIK, PRK, LASEK and SMILE techniques. You can't always choose which one of these different techniques you want. After the examination, the most suitable technique for you is determined depending on your eye structure and disorder. So the best way is to consult a specialist doctor.

Laser Eye Surgery Methods

In fact, the laser process is applied to the stroma layer, which is located under the epithelial layer of the cornea, in all surgeries. Techniques differ according to the method applied to reach this layer.

As a result of my research, I saw that there are more than 10 laser eye surgery methods in total. But as you can see after a little research on the internet, 5 of them are very common. In fact, the most common method is called LASIK, but all of these techniques have emerged as a result of technological developments and developments. Since we're talking about a state-of-the-art system, it would be impossible not to add other common methods.

The most common of these techniques is LASIK. The biggest reason why it is the most common technique is that most people are suitable for the procedure, so most people with eye disorders around the world can be treated with this technique. The second technique is ILASIK or FEMTOLASIK, which is the most advanced version of this technique. Since LASIK and iLASIK techniques are very similar, it is useful to consider them together and make comparisons. That's why I'm going to explain these two together.

The next technique, PRK, is actually the oldest of the laser eye surgery techniques. This is the technique used in the first surgery in 1988. Another technique, LASEK, is known as a modified version of the PRK technique and a technique that combines some features of LASIK and PRK. Because of this and because some doctors use PRK and LASEK methods alternately, I will explain these two techniques together and comparatively.

The latest technique, SMILE, was developed in the 2000s and is used to correct myopia and astigmatism. This technique is especially recommended for people who have dry eye syndrome or are at risk of getting an eye injury, such as boxers.

You can find the operation and recovery processes below with a more detailed explanation of each technique.

LASIK-iLASIK Methods and Their Application

LASIK technique is used to correct myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This technique is very common, both because it can be applied to any eye disorder and because most eye disorders can be treated with this technique. But the most important reason why there are different techniques is that they are suitable for different eye structures or degrees of disorder. Therefore, the most suitable method for you is determined after a detailed examination. Do not forget this.

There are two stages in the surgery. The first stage is the removal of a thin membrane in the cornea, and the second is laser correction of the underlying defect.

Before the operation, the patient's eyes are anesthetized with drops. In other words, general anesthesia or needle anesthesia is not used. But the person does not feel pain or pain during the operation.

Then, in the first stage of the operation, a thin membrane-like layer (flap) is removed from the cornea. In the LASIK technique, this first stage is performed with a knife called a microkeratome, which is the distinguishing feature of the classical LASIK technique. This is where it differs from the ILASIK or FEMTOLASIK technique. In the iLASIK method, laser is used, not a knife, at this stage, so there is no eye contact.

After this tiny flap is lifted, a laser is used to correct the visual impairment in the second stage. This process is the same in both LASIK and iLASIK methods. This is what we call laser eye surgery. In other words, the laser process applied after the removed part of the cornea. This process takes only seconds. The total duration of the operation is 10-15 minutes. In other words, we can say that going into surgery and exiting are almost the same.

Who are Suitable for LASIK-iLASIK Methods?

The first condition to be able to do these techniques is to be 18 years old. The second most basic factor is that the eye disorders have not changed or changed very little in the last year.

LASIK and ILASIK laser eye surgery can be applied to myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism, but there are upper limits for these. If your eye disorders are less than 10 degrees if you are myopic, 6 degrees if you are astigmatism or hyperopia, you can have surgery with these techniques. In addition, your corneal thickness, corneal surface and eye structure must be suitable for these methods, which become evident during the examination.

There are cases where these techniques cannot be applied. If your cornea is thin, if you have keratocona in your cornea, if you have cataract disease, if you have diabetes symptoms in your eyes and if you have rheumatic diseases, you cannot have LASIK and iLASIK surgery. In addition, pregnant and lactating women cannot have this surgery.

In addition, in some cases detected during the examination, these problems are treated before the LASIK operation. In the determination of eye pressure, first the intraocular pressure is regulated, and then laser treatment is performed. If there are tears, holes or thin areas in the retina, they are secured first. Laser eye surgery is performed 3 weeks after that.

The Healing Process in LASIK-iLASIK Surgeries

One of the reasons why LASIK and iLASIK techniques are so popular is that the healing processes are fast. Although the turbidity may last for a few days, doctors say that you can return to your normal life the day after the operation. The processes and what you need to pay attention to are as follows:

After the surgery, antibiotic drops are dripped into your eyes and protective glasses are put on to prevent dust or foreign matter from getting into your eyes. One day after the operation, you come to the clinic or hospital for examination and these glasses are removed by the doctors here. In addition, your doctor may recommend the use of protective lenses.

In the normal process, you can return to your normal life one day after the operation. However, since your eyes are sensitive and sensitive to light, it is not recommended to watch television, read a book, or be on the phone closely during this first day. The best healing advice is to rest with your eyes closed, and better yet, get plenty of sleep.

You may experience burning, stinging and watering in your eyes for a few hours after the surgery. This is perfectly normal. Pain can be experienced, albeit rarely, and in such a case, you take painkillers. To speed up the healing process, you should not rub, scratch or rub your eyes with your hands. The doctor may recommend that you sleep with protective glasses on the first day to prevent this.

In addition, you do not take a bath on the evening of the operation, and you do not wash your face. It is completely normal to see blurred vision for a few days after the operation. However, it is recommended to have a companion with you when you come to the operation so that you do not experience any problems. These blurrings may decrease and sometimes last for a few weeks or months, but your doctor will evaluate them as you will go to regular check-ups after the surgery. This operation takes an average of six months.

Things You Should be Careful about in LASIK-iLASIK Methods

In these methods, a short check-up is made in the clinic the day after the treatment and you can return to your normal life after that, but you should know that there are issues that need to be considered for both your health and the success of the surgery. The most important of these are:

It is recommended not to wear eye make-up for 1 week.

Pool, sea, sauna, Turkish bath and solarium are completely prohibited for 1 month.

You should avoid scratching and rubbing your eyes for 1 month. This is prohibited on the first day after surgery.

Since the eyes are sensitive, you should stay away from team sports such as basketball, football, tennis and boxing for 1 month. In fact, if you are an athlete who does one of the sports that may cause a blow to the eye, your doctor may recommend another method for you.

One day after the operation, you can do light sports such as walking, jogging, exercise with equipment, provided that you are careful.

PRK-LASEK Methods and Their Application

PRK is actually the oldest of the laser surgery techniques. The first laser eye surgery performed in 1988 was performed with the PRK technique. A modified version of the PRK method in LASEK. Both are known as surface treatments and are performed from the surface of the cornea.

Unlike the LASIK technique, which is the most common of the laser techniques, in the PRK method, a thin layer (flap) is not created with an incision (LASIK/iLASIK) in the cornea, the laser starts directly from the outer surface. PRK technique is the process of applying Excimer Laser to the underlying tissue by stripping the thin living tissue called epithelium at the top of the cornea. Therefore, the PRK technique is more suitable for people with thin corneas.

Before the operation, the patient's eyes are anesthetized with drops. In other words, general anesthesia or needle anesthesia is not used. But the person does not feel pain or pain during the operation. After the eyes are numb, the top layer of the cornea (epithelium) is removed by applying spatula, alcohol or EXCIMER laser. If this epithelium is removed by applying a spatula, it is PRK, if it is removed by applying diluted alcohol, it is LASEK. If the EXCIMER is removed with a laser, it is called an "eye contactless laser".

Then laser is applied to the surface. This is what we call laser eye surgery. In other words, the laser process applied after the removed part of the cornea. Then the removed epithelium is placed in its place and the process is finished. Protective lenses are also worn for use for a few days. These processes take about 15 minutes.

Who are Suitable for PRK-LASEK Methods?

First of all, I must say that in order to have laser eye surgery, you must be over the age of 18 and your eye degree must not have changed (or very little) in the last year.

The PRK technique can be used for the treatment of people below 4 degrees in myopia, 2 degrees in hyperopia, and 2 degrees in astigmatism. It is applied among these people, especially those who have thin corneas and some medical conditions that affect their eyes. Since no flap is removed from the corneal layer and the corneal biomechanics is preserved, people at risk of eye injury and those working in areas where there is a high probability of impact to the eye, such as boxing, rugby and military service, generally prefer the PRK procedure. Since corneal surface treatment is preferred in PRK, this method is also recommended for patients with conditions affecting the cornea.

The situation is the same with LASEK. Another method applied for more sensitive eyes is LASEK. The difference from PRK is only in the application phase. The numbers applied are the same as PRK, but at this point, your doctor will give the most accurate information after the examination.
 
PRK and LASEK cannot be applied to people with varying refraction problems, corneal abrasions, and people with advanced glaucoma. You cannot have surgery with PRK-LASEK methods, even if you have diabetes, cataract disease or an eye infection that affects your condition.

The most accurate results and the best method suitable for you will of course be determined after the examinations by your doctor.

The Healing Process in PRK-LASEK Surgeries

The biggest disadvantage of PRK compared to other laser eye surgeries is the healing process. In this method, the healing process is a little more uncomfortable and long.

After the operation, protective lenses are attached to the eyes and these lenses stay in the eye for 3-4 days. Your doctor removes these lenses in a clinical setting. During this period, symptoms such as burning, stinging and mild pain may occur in the eyes, and you are also sensitive to light. Therefore, it will be good to take a pair of sunglasses with you when you go to the surgery. The reason why this process is so long is that the healing of the epithelial tissue is completed in this period.

It takes an average of 1 week to 10 days for vision to clear. The process of gaining good vision can take up to 3-4 weeks. In the meantime, I must say that blurred vision can also occur and can last for 1 week. After PRK and LASEK treatment, there are fluctuations in vision in the first month and the sharpest vision occurs 2-3 months later. However, if there is no problem after the first checks, you can drive or go to work within 24 hours.

Things You Should be Careful about in PRK-LASEK Methods

First of all, I want to make sure that you are talking to a reliable and expert doctor, as in all matters related to health. As for the things to be considered about the methods;

Lens use should be discontinued 3 weeks before the operation with PRK-LASEK techniques in the use of hard contact lenses, and 1 week before the operation in the use of soft contact lenses.

It is recommended not to wear eye make-up for 1 week.

Pool, sea, sauna, Turkish bath and solarium are completely prohibited for 1 month.

You should avoid scratching and rubbing your eyes for 1 month. This is prohibited on the first day after surgery.

Since the eyes are sensitive, you should stay away from team sports such as basketball, football, tennis and boxing for 1 month.

One day after the operation, you can do light sports such as walking, jogging, exercise with equipment, provided that you are careful.

SMILE Method and Its Application

The SMILE method is the third generation laser treatment for visual disorders. Just as PRK is the oldest of laser therapy, SMILE is the newest. Femtosecond laser, which is the latest technology, is used in SMILE laser treatment.
 
In the SMILE method, only myopia and astigmatism disorders are treated; that is, it is not a suitable method for hyperopia. With this technique, defects up to -10 degrees for myopia and -5 degrees for astigmatism are successfully corrected. The most distinctive feature of this technique is that all surgical steps are performed with a single laser.

Before the operation, the patient's eyes are anesthetized with drops. In other words, general anesthesia or needle anesthesia is not used. But the person does not feel pain or pain during the operation. During the surgery there is a laser procedure that takes about 27 seconds. First, a vacuum ring is placed that prevents you from moving your eyes, and then laser is applied. In the final stage, the doctor removes the part formed in the cornea through an incision of only 2 mm.

The process takes a maximum of 15 minutes in total.

Who are Suitable for SMILE Method?

I must say that the first requirement for SMILE, which is the newest of the laser eye surgeries, is to be over 18 years old. The second most important condition is that there is no change in the eye number in the last year.

In SMILE, which is used for myopia and astigmatism disorders, the degree of myopia should be between -1 and -10, and astigmatism should be less than -5 degrees. In general, the cornea and eye health should be good, and there should be no diseases such as glaucoma.

The SMILE method cannot be applied to people with diabetes and those who have had severe eye infections. People with eye disorder hyperopia are also not suitable for this method. As with all surgical procedures, SMILE is not suitable for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. People with corneal degeneration and people who prevent them from seeing the distress in their cataracts are also excluded from this method.

In addition to all this, the most important part of a process that requires such attention is detailed examinations and the recommendations your doctor will offer afterwards.

The Healing Process in SMILE Method

One of the biggest advantages of the SMILE technique is the healing process. Since there are no cuts and no flaps are created as in the LASIK method, the recovery is faster and much more smoothly.

One of the most important features of the SMILE method is that it does not cause dry eyes in the person. Therefore, it can also be applied to patients with dry eyes. Since the operation is completed in a single stage, pain and stinging are very mild and short-lived. We can say that 80-90% of the vision was gained in the control that came 24 hours after the procedure. While vision may take 2-3 days to gain, stabilization of visual acuity occurs within 2 to 4 weeks.

The day after the operation, the person returns to his normal social life, can drive and go to work. However, it is important to protect the eyes against sensitivity to light.

Things You Should be Careful about in SMILE Method

First of all, I want to make sure that you are talking to a reliable and expert doctor, as in all matters related to health. As for the things to be considered about the SMILE method;

In the first few hours after the treatment, it is possible to experience watering and a slight stinging sensation. Therefore, the drops given by the doctor should be applied carefully and in accordance with the prescription.
 
During the first 24 hours, the eyes should not be touched or played with. Likewise, you should not take a shower on the first day.

During the first 20 days, you should not go to the pool or the sea against the risk of infection, and you should pay attention to hygiene.

2 days after the operation, you can return to sports that are done in gyms and are not very extreme. It is recommended not to exercise before this. You can start water sports such as swimming and surfing 3-4 days after the operation. Doctors recommend that you do not return to sports that can be hit, such as diving and boxing, before two weeks.

The most important thing is that you follow your doctor's recommendations and do not delay your controls.

Frequently Asked Questions

Since laser treatment is applied to the cornea layer on the outer part of the eye, there is no damage to the retina.

Laser treatment is not a hemorrhagic and open treatment because it is applied to the avascular part of the cornea. Since drop anesthesia is applied during laser treatment, pain and pain are not felt.

If the eye structure is suitable, laser eye surgery can be applied twice.

In these surgeries performed to provide clear vision without glasses in astigmatism, myopia and hyperopia, values below 0.50 are interpreted as successful and the patient does not need to wear glasses.

The operation takes a total of 10-15 minutes for both eyes. The person does not feel pain or pain during eye laser surgery, but the feeling of touch continues and he feels pressure in the eye for a short time during the procedure.

LASIK, ILASIK, PRK and LASEK laser techniques are used to correct myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism eye disorders. While the SMILE technique is used in myopia and astigmatism disorders, it is not used in hyperopia people. As for the degrees: LASIK and ILASIK techniques are applied to eye disorders below 10 degrees in myopia, and below 6 degrees in astigmatism and hyperopia. PRK and LASEK techniques are applied to eye disorders below 4 degrees in myopia, and less than 2 degrees in astigmatism and hyperopia. The SMILE technique is applied in disorders up to -10 degrees for myopia and -5 degrees for astigmatism.

iLASIK is performed with Femtosecond Laser and Excimer Laser devices and is applied in the following cases: In case of high astigmatism, In case of corneal aberrations (deviation of the light beam entering the eye due to irregular defects in the cornea other than regular defects such as myopia, hyperopia or astigmatism), If the number remains after LASIK, It is applied if the person has previously undergone surgery such as cataract, corneal transplant. With iLASIK, besides increasing the visual level of a person with high astigmatism and corneal aberration without glasses or contact lenses, the quality of vision is also increased. In iLASIK treatment, it is aimed to completely correct astigmatism, myopia and hyperopia.

Eye laser surgery is decided after a detailed eye examination by your ophthalmologist. In this examination, a detailed corneal examination is also performed in which many factors such as corneal thickness and shape are evaluated.

Do not rub your eyes or take a bath for the first 24 hours after the operation. You can return to your normal life after the first 24 hours. Have your check-ups as often as your doctor recommends.

The laser method cannot be applied in cases where there is a structural defect in the cornea, the corneal thickness is not sufficient for surgery, and the person has severe dry eye disease or eye pressure (glaucoma). In addition, laser method cannot be performed in patients with connective tissue diseases such as uncontrolled diabetes, rheumatism, HIV-positive patients, and women who are pregnant and breastfeeding.

All eye surgeries performed with laser are performed for certain degrees. In cases where the degree of eye disorder is high, the Phakik Intraocular Lens application is applied and it can be applied for myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism, that is, for all eye disorders. If there is no situation that may prevent the operation, a phakic intraocular lens can be placed on refractive errors of approximately 8-10 in myopia and above 5 in hyperopia. The difference from laser surgeries is that the application is reversible and can be applied to people with high myopia and hyperopia. In addition, in this technique, the natural lens of the eye is not interfered with as with the laser, the intraocular lens is placed in front of or behind the iris. The most appropriate treatment method for your eye disorder is of course determined after detailed examination and tests by your doctor.

The deterioration of our eyes is a fact that we all know and many people experience. These diseases are myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, presbyopia and cataracts, which are experienced when the cornea cannot drop the image properly on the lens or the lens becomes opaque due to genetic or external reasons. These disorders, which people have experienced for centuries, were corrected for a long time with glasses and then with blade surgery. The application of laser technology to eye surgeries in 1988 changed everything.

In the meantime, laser techniques have increased and become much more perfect. Laser surgeries performed without blades take much less time, are more successful and have shorter recovery times. The margins of error are almost nonexistent. So currently the most reliable method. These cutting-edge technologies have also eliminated pain and aches. Hurray!

In short, laser eye surgery is the process of completely computer-controlled laser devices changing the shape of the cornea, which is the transparent layer of the eye, to correct visual disturbances. It is also known as "Excimer laser surgery" because of the most widely used laser technique and has been used successfully in the treatment of eye disorders for more than 30 years. When these rays come into contact with the transparent corneal layer at the front of the eye, they break the chemical bonds that bind the corneal molecules together, thus destroying that part on the surface of the cornea.

Since this event is a photochemical process, it does not harm any tissue of the eye, and its effect does not even penetrate the inner parts of the eye, because it loses all its effect when it encounters tears or any liquid. So there's nothing to be afraid of.

There are many different types of laser operations, which I will explain below. These are LASIK-iLASIK, PRK, LASEK and SMILE techniques. You can't always choose which one of these different techniques you want. After the examination, the most suitable technique for you is determined depending on your eye structure and disorder. So the best way is to consult a specialist doctor.

In fact, the laser process is applied to the stroma layer, which is located under the epithelial layer of the cornea, in all surgeries. Techniques differ according to the method applied to reach this layer.

As a result of my research, I saw that there are more than 10 laser eye surgery methods in total. But as you can see after a little research on the internet, 5 of them are very common. In fact, the most common method is called LASIK, but all of these techniques have emerged as a result of technological developments and developments. Since we're talking about a state-of-the-art system, it would be impossible not to add other common methods.

The most common of these techniques is LASIK. The biggest reason why it is the most common technique is that most people are suitable for the procedure, so most people with eye disorders around the world can be treated with this technique. The second technique is ILASIK or FEMTOLASIK, which is the most advanced version of this technique. Since LASIK and iLASIK techniques are very similar, it is useful to consider them together and make comparisons. That's why I'm going to explain these two together.

The next technique, PRK, is actually the oldest of the laser eye surgery techniques. This is the technique used in the first surgery in 1988. Another technique, LASEK, is known as a modified version of the PRK technique and a technique that combines some features of LASIK and PRK. Because of this and because some doctors use PRK and LASEK methods alternately, I will explain these two techniques together and comparatively.

The latest technique, SMILE, was developed in the 2000s and is used to correct myopia and astigmatism. This technique is especially recommended for people who have dry eye syndrome or are at risk of getting an eye injury, such as boxers.

You can find the operation and recovery processes below with a more detailed explanation of each technique.

LASIK technique is used to correct myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This technique is very common, both because it can be applied to any eye disorder and because most eye disorders can be treated with this technique. But the most important reason why there are different techniques is that they are suitable for different eye structures or degrees of disorder. Therefore, the most suitable method for you is determined after a detailed examination. Do not forget this.

There are two stages in the surgery. The first stage is the removal of a thin membrane in the cornea, and the second is laser correction of the underlying defect.

Before the operation, the patient's eyes are anesthetized with drops. In other words, general anesthesia or needle anesthesia is not used. But the person does not feel pain or pain during the operation.

Then, in the first stage of the operation, a thin membrane-like layer (flap) is removed from the cornea. In the LASIK technique, this first stage is performed with a knife called a microkeratome, which is the distinguishing feature of the classical LASIK technique. This is where it differs from the ILASIK or FEMTOLASIK technique. In the iLASIK method, laser is used, not a knife, at this stage, so there is no eye contact.

After this tiny flap is lifted, a laser is used to correct the visual impairment in the second stage. This process is the same in both LASIK and iLASIK methods. This is what we call laser eye surgery. In other words, the laser process applied after the removed part of the cornea. This process takes only seconds. The total duration of the operation is 10-15 minutes. In other words, we can say that going into surgery and exiting are almost the same.

The first condition to be able to do these techniques is to be 18 years old. The second most basic factor is that the eye disorders have not changed or changed very little in the last year.

LASIK and ILASIK laser eye surgery can be applied to myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism, but there are upper limits for these. If your eye disorders are less than 10 degrees if you are myopic, 6 degrees if you are astigmatism or hyperopia, you can have surgery with these techniques. In addition, your corneal thickness, corneal surface and eye structure must be suitable for these methods, which become evident during the examination.

There are cases where these techniques cannot be applied. If your cornea is thin, if you have keratocona in your cornea, if you have cataract disease, if you have diabetes symptoms in your eyes and if you have rheumatic diseases, you cannot have LASIK and iLASIK surgery. In addition, pregnant and lactating women cannot have this surgery.

In addition, in some cases detected during the examination, these problems are treated before the LASIK operation. In the determination of eye pressure, first the intraocular pressure is regulated, and then laser treatment is performed. If there are tears, holes or thin areas in the retina, they are secured first. Laser eye surgery is performed 3 weeks after that.

One of the reasons why LASIK and iLASIK techniques are so popular is that the healing processes are fast. Although the turbidity may last for a few days, doctors say that you can return to your normal life the day after the operation. The processes and what you need to pay attention to are as follows:

After the surgery, antibiotic drops are dripped into your eyes and protective glasses are put on to prevent dust or foreign matter from getting into your eyes. One day after the operation, you come to the clinic or hospital for examination and these glasses are removed by the doctors here. In addition, your doctor may recommend the use of protective lenses.

In the normal process, you can return to your normal life one day after the operation. However, since your eyes are sensitive and sensitive to light, it is not recommended to watch television, read a book, or be on the phone closely during this first day. The best healing advice is to rest with your eyes closed, and better yet, get plenty of sleep.

You may experience burning, stinging and watering in your eyes for a few hours after the surgery. This is perfectly normal. Pain can be experienced, albeit rarely, and in such a case, you take painkillers. To speed up the healing process, you should not rub, scratch or rub your eyes with your hands. The doctor may recommend that you sleep with protective glasses on the first day to prevent this.

In addition, you do not take a bath on the evening of the operation, and you do not wash your face. It is completely normal to see blurred vision for a few days after the operation. However, it is recommended to have a companion with you when you come to the operation so that you do not experience any problems. These blurrings may decrease and sometimes last for a few weeks or months, but your doctor will evaluate them as you will go to regular check-ups after the surgery. This operation takes an average of six months.

In these methods, a short check-up is made in the clinic the day after the treatment and you can return to your normal life after that, but you should know that there are issues that need to be considered for both your health and the success of the surgery. The most important of these are:

It is recommended not to wear eye make-up for 1 week.

Pool, sea, sauna, Turkish bath and solarium are completely prohibited for 1 month.

You should avoid scratching and rubbing your eyes for 1 month. This is prohibited on the first day after surgery.

Since the eyes are sensitive, you should stay away from team sports such as basketball, football, tennis and boxing for 1 month. In fact, if you are an athlete who does one of the sports that may cause a blow to the eye, your doctor may recommend another method for you.

One day after the operation, you can do light sports such as walking, jogging, exercise with equipment, provided that you are careful.

PRK is actually the oldest of the laser surgery techniques. The first laser eye surgery performed in 1988 was performed with the PRK technique. A modified version of the PRK method in LASEK. Both are known as surface treatments and are performed from the surface of the cornea.

Unlike the LASIK technique, which is the most common of the laser techniques, in the PRK method, a thin layer (flap) is not created with an incision (LASIK/iLASIK) in the cornea, the laser starts directly from the outer surface. PRK technique is the process of applying Excimer Laser to the underlying tissue by stripping the thin living tissue called epithelium at the top of the cornea. Therefore, the PRK technique is more suitable for people with thin corneas.

Before the operation, the patient's eyes are anesthetized with drops. In other words, general anesthesia or needle anesthesia is not used. But the person does not feel pain or pain during the operation. After the eyes are numb, the top layer of the cornea (epithelium) is removed by applying spatula, alcohol or EXCIMER laser. If this epithelium is removed by applying a spatula, it is PRK, if it is removed by applying diluted alcohol, it is LASEK. If the EXCIMER is removed with a laser, it is called an "eye contactless laser".

Then laser is applied to the surface. This is what we call laser eye surgery. In other words, the laser process applied after the removed part of the cornea. Then the removed epithelium is placed in its place and the process is finished. Protective lenses are also worn for use for a few days. These processes take about 15 minutes.

First of all, I must say that in order to have laser eye surgery, you must be over the age of 18 and your eye degree must not have changed (or very little) in the last year.

The PRK technique can be used for the treatment of people below 4 degrees in myopia, 2 degrees in hyperopia, and 2 degrees in astigmatism. It is applied among these people, especially those who have thin corneas and some medical conditions that affect their eyes. Since no flap is removed from the corneal layer and the corneal biomechanics is preserved, people at risk of eye injury and those working in areas where there is a high probability of impact to the eye, such as boxing, rugby and military service, generally prefer the PRK procedure. Since corneal surface treatment is preferred in PRK, this method is also recommended for patients with conditions affecting the cornea.

The situation is the same with LASEK. Another method applied for more sensitive eyes is LASEK. The difference from PRK is only in the application phase. The numbers applied are the same as PRK, but at this point, your doctor will give the most accurate information after the examination.
 
PRK and LASEK cannot be applied to people with varying refraction problems, corneal abrasions, and people with advanced glaucoma. You cannot have surgery with PRK-LASEK methods, even if you have diabetes, cataract disease or an eye infection that affects your condition.

The most accurate results and the best method suitable for you will of course be determined after the examinations by your doctor.

The biggest disadvantage of PRK compared to other laser eye surgeries is the healing process. In this method, the healing process is a little more uncomfortable and long.

After the operation, protective lenses are attached to the eyes and these lenses stay in the eye for 3-4 days. Your doctor removes these lenses in a clinical setting. During this period, symptoms such as burning, stinging and mild pain may occur in the eyes, and you are also sensitive to light. Therefore, it will be good to take a pair of sunglasses with you when you go to the surgery. The reason why this process is so long is that the healing of the epithelial tissue is completed in this period.

It takes an average of 1 week to 10 days for vision to clear. The process of gaining good vision can take up to 3-4 weeks. In the meantime, I must say that blurred vision can also occur and can last for 1 week. After PRK and LASEK treatment, there are fluctuations in vision in the first month and the sharpest vision occurs 2-3 months later. However, if there is no problem after the first checks, you can drive or go to work within 24 hours.

First of all, I want to make sure that you are talking to a reliable and expert doctor, as in all matters related to health. As for the things to be considered about the methods;

Lens use should be discontinued 3 weeks before the operation with PRK-LASEK techniques in the use of hard contact lenses, and 1 week before the operation in the use of soft contact lenses.

It is recommended not to wear eye make-up for 1 week.

Pool, sea, sauna, Turkish bath and solarium are completely prohibited for 1 month.

You should avoid scratching and rubbing your eyes for 1 month. This is prohibited on the first day after surgery.

Since the eyes are sensitive, you should stay away from team sports such as basketball, football, tennis and boxing for 1 month.

One day after the operation, you can do light sports such as walking, jogging, exercise with equipment, provided that you are careful.

The SMILE method is the third generation laser treatment for visual disorders. Just as PRK is the oldest of laser therapy, SMILE is the newest. Femtosecond laser, which is the latest technology, is used in SMILE laser treatment.
 
In the SMILE method, only myopia and astigmatism disorders are treated; that is, it is not a suitable method for hyperopia. With this technique, defects up to -10 degrees for myopia and -5 degrees for astigmatism are successfully corrected. The most distinctive feature of this technique is that all surgical steps are performed with a single laser.

Before the operation, the patient's eyes are anesthetized with drops. In other words, general anesthesia or needle anesthesia is not used. But the person does not feel pain or pain during the operation. During the surgery there is a laser procedure that takes about 27 seconds. First, a vacuum ring is placed that prevents you from moving your eyes, and then laser is applied. In the final stage, the doctor removes the part formed in the cornea through an incision of only 2 mm.

The process takes a maximum of 15 minutes in total.

I must say that the first requirement for SMILE, which is the newest of the laser eye surgeries, is to be over 18 years old. The second most important condition is that there is no change in the eye number in the last year.

In SMILE, which is used for myopia and astigmatism disorders, the degree of myopia should be between -1 and -10, and astigmatism should be less than -5 degrees. In general, the cornea and eye health should be good, and there should be no diseases such as glaucoma.

The SMILE method cannot be applied to people with diabetes and those who have had severe eye infections. People with eye disorder hyperopia are also not suitable for this method. As with all surgical procedures, SMILE is not suitable for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. People with corneal degeneration and people who prevent them from seeing the distress in their cataracts are also excluded from this method.

In addition to all this, the most important part of a process that requires such attention is detailed examinations and the recommendations your doctor will offer afterwards.

One of the biggest advantages of the SMILE technique is the healing process. Since there are no cuts and no flaps are created as in the LASIK method, the recovery is faster and much more smoothly.

One of the most important features of the SMILE method is that it does not cause dry eyes in the person. Therefore, it can also be applied to patients with dry eyes. Since the operation is completed in a single stage, pain and stinging are very mild and short-lived. We can say that 80-90% of the vision was gained in the control that came 24 hours after the procedure. While vision may take 2-3 days to gain, stabilization of visual acuity occurs within 2 to 4 weeks.

The day after the operation, the person returns to his normal social life, can drive and go to work. However, it is important to protect the eyes against sensitivity to light.

First of all, I want to make sure that you are talking to a reliable and expert doctor, as in all matters related to health. As for the things to be considered about the SMILE method;

In the first few hours after the treatment, it is possible to experience watering and a slight stinging sensation. Therefore, the drops given by the doctor should be applied carefully and in accordance with the prescription.
 
During the first 24 hours, the eyes should not be touched or played with. Likewise, you should not take a shower on the first day.

During the first 20 days, you should not go to the pool or the sea against the risk of infection, and you should pay attention to hygiene.

2 days after the operation, you can return to sports that are done in gyms and are not very extreme. It is recommended not to exercise before this. You can start water sports such as swimming and surfing 3-4 days after the operation. Doctors recommend that you do not return to sports that can be hit, such as diving and boxing, before two weeks.

The most important thing is that you follow your doctor's recommendations and do not delay your controls.

Since laser treatment is applied to the cornea layer on the outer part of the eye, there is no damage to the retina.

Laser treatment is not a hemorrhagic and open treatment because it is applied to the avascular part of the cornea. Since drop anesthesia is applied during laser treatment, pain and pain are not felt.

If the eye structure is suitable, laser eye surgery can be applied twice.

In these surgeries performed to provide clear vision without glasses in astigmatism, myopia and hyperopia, values below 0.50 are interpreted as successful and the patient does not need to wear glasses.

The operation takes a total of 10-15 minutes for both eyes. The person does not feel pain or pain during eye laser surgery, but the feeling of touch continues and he feels pressure in the eye for a short time during the procedure.

LASIK, ILASIK, PRK and LASEK laser techniques are used to correct myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism eye disorders. While the SMILE technique is used in myopia and astigmatism disorders, it is not used in hyperopia people. As for the degrees: LASIK and ILASIK techniques are applied to eye disorders below 10 degrees in myopia, and below 6 degrees in astigmatism and hyperopia. PRK and LASEK techniques are applied to eye disorders below 4 degrees in myopia, and less than 2 degrees in astigmatism and hyperopia. The SMILE technique is applied in disorders up to -10 degrees for myopia and -5 degrees for astigmatism.

iLASIK is performed with Femtosecond Laser and Excimer Laser devices and is applied in the following cases: In case of high astigmatism, In case of corneal aberrations (deviation of the light beam entering the eye due to irregular defects in the cornea other than regular defects such as myopia, hyperopia or astigmatism), If the number remains after LASIK, It is applied if the person has previously undergone surgery such as cataract, corneal transplant. With iLASIK, besides increasing the visual level of a person with high astigmatism and corneal aberration without glasses or contact lenses, the quality of vision is also increased. In iLASIK treatment, it is aimed to completely correct astigmatism, myopia and hyperopia.

Eye laser surgery is decided after a detailed eye examination by your ophthalmologist. In this examination, a detailed corneal examination is also performed in which many factors such as corneal thickness and shape are evaluated.

Do not rub your eyes or take a bath for the first 24 hours after the operation. You can return to your normal life after the first 24 hours. Have your check-ups as often as your doctor recommends.

The laser method cannot be applied in cases where there is a structural defect in the cornea, the corneal thickness is not sufficient for surgery, and the person has severe dry eye disease or eye pressure (glaucoma). In addition, laser method cannot be performed in patients with connective tissue diseases such as uncontrolled diabetes, rheumatism, HIV-positive patients, and women who are pregnant and breastfeeding.

All eye surgeries performed with laser are performed for certain degrees. In cases where the degree of eye disorder is high, the Phakik Intraocular Lens application is applied and it can be applied for myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism, that is, for all eye disorders. If there is no situation that may prevent the operation, a phakic intraocular lens can be placed on refractive errors of approximately 8-10 in myopia and above 5 in hyperopia. The difference from laser surgeries is that the application is reversible and can be applied to people with high myopia and hyperopia. In addition, in this technique, the natural lens of the eye is not interfered with as with the laser, the intraocular lens is placed in front of or behind the iris. The most appropriate treatment method for your eye disorder is of course determined after detailed examination and tests by your doctor.

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