All You Need to Know about Eye Diseases and Surgeries

Hello, welcome to Turkey, the eye health center of the world.

I am using the article that I used in my article on laser eye surgeries, because whether it is laser surgery to correct eye disorders or eye diseases that I will discuss in this article,

Turkey is at the forefront of these in the world. What makes Turkey such a center is the hospitals equipped with the latest devices and technologies, as well as the world-renowned experts accompanying them and the very reasonable prices.

I am considering laser surgery for astigmatism and myopia disorders in my eyes, and I wrote the article on laser eye surgeries to share the information I gained from my research. But if you're like me, you know that once you get into a topic, it's not easy to get out. Especially in health matters. In this process, I also included eye diseases in my research both out of curiosity and to prepare such an article. You can find my laser eye surgery article here.

In this article, I explained the most common eye diseases and treatments, which are cataract surgery, glaucoma (eye pressure), vitrectomy and corneal transplantation. You will find everything you wonder about, from what these are to the operation and recovery processes in this article. At the end of the page, I added a "Frequently Asked Questions" section that I compiled from the questions I was curious about and the questions I encountered in my research. I hope you will find the answer to everything you wonder here, but if you can't find it, write it in the comment section and I will research and add it as soon as possible.



What does Eye Disease Mean?

Each of our organs is very important, but the place of our eyes is probably different for all of us. Our eyes are like our window to the world. That's why it's very important to care about the health of our eyes, and I'm more convinced of this as a result of my research.

Problems can occur in our eyes due to genetic causes, environmental factors such as infection or aging. For this reason, it is important to go to a regular eye doctor examination even if there are no problems or symptoms in your eyes. For the early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases, doctors recommend going for checkups every two years until the age of 50, and every year after the age of 50. It is worth repeating, this is valid when there is no problem in the eye.

Many diseases In this article, I will discuss the most common of these diseases. The most common among these is the disease that is seen in the loss of transparency of our eye lens, which we call cataract. While this disease can be seen genetically, it is more commonly seen as age-related, because our organs age with us. But with the developing medicine and technology, its treatment is quite easy.

Glaucoma, which is called glaucoma, is caused by increased intraocular pressure and unfortunately, its incidence increases over the age of 40. We can think of vitrectomy as a symmetrical cataract. That is, cataract is related to the anterior part of the eye, whereas vitrectomy is related to the posterior part of the eye. The solution to problems such as bleeding and inflammation in the back of the eye is vitrectomy. The transparent layer in front of the colored part of our eye that we see is the cornea. In cases where the rays cannot be transferred to the back of the eye in a healthy way, this may be due to the cornea. In these cases, thanks to modern medicine, this layer can be replaced with a healthy cornea.

You can find detailed information about these diseases and their treatments below.

What is Cataract Surgery? When Do You Need It?

Cataracts are often known as the disease of the elderly because they mostly occur in people over the age of 60. But it can also be seen earlier due to genetic or other reasons. Therefore, it is important that we have our eyes checked periodically, even if there is no problem in our eyes.

I said that cataracts increase with age. According to the U.S. National Institute of Health, about 5% of people aged 50-54 have cataracts, while about 50% of people aged 75-79 have cataracts, and about 70% of people aged over 80 years.

Cataract manifests itself with symptoms such as double vision, blurred vision, deterioration of night vision, and causes a decrease in vision over time. This disease needs to be treated, and unfortunately, it is not possible to treat cataracts with drugs.

If the cataract has become cloudy in the eye, it can disperse in the eye. In such a case, it is necessary to undergo surgery in order not to face problems up to blindness. In congenital cataract disease, surgery should be performed more quickly.

If you have any of the above-mentioned symptoms related to vision in your eyes, I recommend that you contact specialist doctors in a safe institution and have your surgery as soon as possible.

What Happens during the Cataract Surgery?

In cataract surgery, the dulled lens inside your eye is replaced with a clear artificial lens. You do not feel any pain or pain during the surgery, you only feel a little pressure. A normal cataract surgery does not take long, it takes about 15 minutes. It is usually an outpatient procedure and does not require a hospital stay. The operation is as follows.

A small section is made in the cornea. A high-frequency ultrasound device or laser is used to cut the opacified lens into small segments. Laser is more common now as the laser is generally widespread and safe. The opaque parts of the lens are then carefully removed from the eye. After these opaque parts are removed, the specialist doctor places the artificial lens behind the pupil. That's it for the surgery.

The section in the cornea heals spontaneously without the need for stitches. After the surgery, a protective shield is placed over the eye. If you have cataract disease in both eyes, these are done sequentially and there is a time between 1 and 3 weeks.

The Healing Process of Cataract Surgery

A standard cataract surgery normally takes only 15 minutes. However, with instructions for preparation, surgery, and rest, you may need to stay in the operating room for 90 minutes or more. But fear not, this is not the duration of the process itself, so you are resting there.

You will need someone to accompany you after cataract surgery because you are given special glasses to protect your eyes from sunlight and other bright lights. Medicated eye drops should be used for 3 to 4 weeks. For your eye health, you need to wear a protective eye shield while you sleep for about a week. As your eye heals, you may experience some eye redness and blurred vision for the first few days or, depending on your condition, for a few weeks.

With these restrictions, you can use your eyes from the first day.

What You Should be Careful about After the Cataract Surgery

In order for the healing process to be successful after cataract surgery, you need to pay attention to certain points.
Especially during the first two weeks, you need to stay away from strenuous activities and lifting more than 15 kilos in your daily life or while doing sports.

Again, for a few weeks, you should avoid bending, exercising and activities that may strain the eyes.

During the healing process, you should not contact your eyes with water. It's best to keep your eyes closed or wear large swimming goggles while showering, as this can cause an infection. It is also recommended to stay away from activities such as swimming and spending time in the jacuzzi for at least two weeks.

It is best for your eye health not to expose your eyes to substances such as dust and dirt that may cause infection, and to stay away from such activities.

Perhaps the most important thing to pay attention to is to follow your doctor's recommendations and not miss your checkups.

What is Glaucoma (High Eye Pressure)?

Glaucoma or glaucoma is the deterioration of the optic nerves as a result of increased intraocular pressure. There is a fluid in the back of our eye, and this fluid is both produced and excreted at the same time. This liquid is not the tear in front of our eyes. In glaucoma, an obstruction occurs in the outflow of this intraocular fluid, and the resulting increased intraocular fluid causes an increase in intraocular pressure. Unfortunately, this blockage cannot be seen with the naked eye, and the increased intraocular pressure also damages the optic nerve by damaging the nerves. It is very important that this disease is diagnosed and treated early in regular eye check-ups, as it is irreversible after the damage has been completely experienced. This disease can lead to blindness.

Glaucoma is most commonly associated with age. If you have a family history, doctors advise you to be especially careful. Although there are two types, I am basing the age-related glaucoma type here as their processes and symptoms are similar.

The most obvious symptoms of glaucoma include blurred vision, severe eye pain, headache, seeing rainbows around lights, as well as nausea and vomiting. Since early diagnosis is very important in the treatment of glaucoma, if these symptoms are present, doctors recommend seeing a specialist and not interrupting routine controls.

Here's the importance of it. An abnormal increase in intraocular pressure, which is detected by routine eye examination by an ophthalmologist, may be the initial symptom of eye pressure. But that doesn't necessarily mean you have glaucoma. For glaucoma, the increase in intraocular pressure must be accompanied by deterioration of the optic nerve.

Treatment Methods of Glaucoma

There are three types of treatment, depending on how advanced the glaucoma is and how quickly it progresses. Since glaucoma is the inability to expel the intraocular fluid, all treatment methods are aimed at providing this. The first of these is drug therapy. Depending on the condition of glaucoma, drops or oral medications are used in drug treatment. However, since these drugs are generally heavy drugs, they also have side effects and your doctor will tell you the best method in this regard.

In cases where drug therapy does not stop the progression of glaucoma, laser therapy is applied. Laser therapy can reduce intraocular pressures, which are not very high, to normal levels. However, the duration of effect in laser treatment is usually 2-3 years and the effect of the treatment decreases within 5 years. As far as I've learned from my research, laser therapy is mostly applied when it is desired to save time in patients who do not comply with drug therapy or where drug therapy does not work, but cannot be operated on.

If the intraocular pressure cannot be reduced to a normal level despite all the drugs used, if the damage to the optic nerve is progressively progressing and the visual field is getting worse, surgery is required. I would like to say that in cases where the operation is not performed, the person loses his sight day by day. Although there are different surgical techniques that vary according to the structure of the eye and the value of the intraocular pressure, the purpose of all of them is to facilitate the outflow of intraocular fluid, which is difficult to get out of the eye and causes an increase in intraocular pressure.

The most important thing I learned in my research on glaucoma surgery is that the success rate is very high, and the risks are very low thanks to modern technology. I'm sure this information will help many people as well as me.

The Surgery Process of Glaucoma

If the damage to the optic nerve is progressively progressing in a person with glaucoma, surgery is required. Here, I need to point out that the damage to the optic nerves cannot be reversed by surgery, so the damage to the eye until then is unfortunately permanent. The surgery is performed to prevent further damage and to save the healthy nerves found.

Glaucoma surgery is performed using general anesthesia in infants and children and local anesthesia in adults in the standard procedure. You only feel the pressure applied to your eyes in surgeries where there is no pain or ache. Glaucoma surgery takes about 30 minutes.

Although there are different surgical techniques, all of them open a channel that will allow the intraocular fluid to leave the eye easily. In rare cases, when the opened canal is closed by healthy cells and the intraocular pressure rises again, re-operation may be required.

In cases where this standard surgery does not produce results, tubes or artificial channels are placed in the eye. This tube placement is usually applied in more severe and stubborn cases. A bandage is put on the eyes for 24 hours for protection after the surgery.

The most important thing is the follow-up after the surgery. In some patients after the surgery, it may be necessary to continue the use of medication or repeat surgeries.

The Healing Process after the Glaucoma Surgery

Recovery after glaucoma surgery takes at least 2-3 weeks, but it will take that long for you to return to your normal life. This is rather the amount of time doctors give for a healthier vision assessment.

After the surgery, the eyes stay closed for one night and open the next day. You stay away from activities that will make you exert effort for the first 24 hours. After your eyes are opened, you can continue your daily activities, read a book, watch television. It usually takes 3-4 days for you to return to your normal life completely.

It is recommended to use a protective shield while you sleep to prevent damage to your eyes for a week after the surgery.
Some patients may experience a temporary decrease in vision for a few days following glaucoma surgery, but this is completely normal. If you follow your doctor's recommendations, your vision will return to its pre-operative level within 2-3 weeks at the latest.

What You Should be Careful about After the Glaucoma Surgery

After glaucoma surgery, there are some points to be considered in order to increase the success rate of the operation.

The most important of these issues is to follow your doctor's recommendations and not to delay them if they have given you medication.

Physical activities such as sports, housework or work should be avoided as much as possible for a week after the surgery.
Recommended eye drops should not be missed.

If you are someone who works in heavy jobs or in dusty environments, it will be very good to take a 1-month leave from your workplace.
 
If you are a person who does not have a heavy workload and works in relatively clean environments such as offices, you can return to work after 2 weeks.
 
If you are using contact lenses, it is recommended to take a break of 1 month. In addition, you take a break from sports such as swimming and diving for a period of 1 month.

Of course, all these and their durations are determined by your doctor's examinations.

What is Vitrectomy?

Eye diseases are divided into two depending on the structure of the eye. Since the structure of the eye is divided into anterior and posterior parts, diseases are classified according to whether they are in the anterior or posterior part. The task of the anterior part of the eye is to ensure that the image reaches the posterior part, while the posterior part transmits neural messages to the brain, so the posterior part undertakes the most important task in our vision. This means that the errors in the back are more important.

Vitrectomy surgery is the name of the operation performed with the help of special tools on the “vitre gel” and “retina” in the back of the eye, with incisions smaller than 1 mm in case of problems or diseases.

This means this. Vitrectomy surgery is the name of an operation, not a disease such as glaucoma or other eye diseases. For this reason, this surgery is applied with great success in many diseases and conditions today.

Eye Conditions and Diseases that Require Vitrectomy

Since vitrectomy is the name of surgery, not a disease, this surgery is applied in many conditions and diseases. As a result of the information I obtained from the doctors, I can count the following:
 
In advanced pathologies seen in diabetes,

In case of bleeding inside the eye,

In the wrinkles in the visual center,

In case of rupture in the neural network layer of the eye,

When there is a hole in the center of vision,

In cases where a foreign object enters the eye as a result of eye injuries,

In cases where there is a lens remnant complication after cataract surgery,

In case of infection in the eye after cataract and other eye surgeries.

As you can see, vitrectomy surgery can be performed in many cases and therefore it is a very advanced surgery with a high success rate.

Vitrectomy Surgery Process

Vitrectomy surgery is performed under local or general anesthesia, depending on your disease or condition. In addition, they are stitched or unstitched depending on the size of the cut.

In vitrectomy surgery performed under local or general anesthesia, the vitreous cavity of the eye and the retina are reached with 3 holes of approximately 0.5 mm opened in the eye wall. After the gel (vitreous) in the eye is cleaned with a device that can make 1500-6000 incisions per minute, the problem in the retina is eliminated. But this process varies according to the disease of the eye.

The Healing Process after the Vitrectomy

After the operation, there is redness, blood and sensitivity in the eye. However, these complaints go away with each day in a week. The most important issue during this period is the regular use of the drugs prescribed by the doctor. The stinging and itching in the eye are considered completely normal, and these go away as the incisions made for surgery heal.

In the surgery, liquid, air or silicone can be injected into the eye, depending on the type or severity of the disease. Air or silicone continues the treatment of the disease in the eye after surgery as long as it remains in the eye. If air is left in the eye, the absorption of air can vary between 1-3 weeks. During this time, it is strictly forbidden to board a plane, which may cause pressure changes, and to travel to regions that are very high above sea level, such as plateaus.

There is no such danger in silicon. However, while the air is sucked in by itself, the silicone stays there unless it is removed with a second surgery from the eye and is only removed with a second surgery. Although there are advantages to keeping the silicone in the eye for a long time, silicones that stay longer than 6 months start to damage. Therefore, these silicones must be removed from the eye before this period.

Since all processes vary according to individuals and eye disease, your doctor will inform you of the most accurate process.

What You Should be Careful about After the Vitrectomy?

Since the eyes are sensitive after vitrectomy, the healing process should be very careful. Although what I write here may vary from person to person, the general points I get from doctors are as follows.

Until the next day's control after the operation, the eyes should remain closed unless otherwise stated.

Eyes should not be touched by water for a week, and only the neck down should be washed while taking a shower.

During this period, the eye should never be touched or wiped.

Medications prescribed after the operation should be used regularly and according to the recipe.

Head position after the operation is important. It is very important to follow the doctor's recommendations in this regard.

If gas is injected into the eye during the operation, vision may be low; A black shadow can be felt in front of your eyes. The given gas stays in the eye for 2-6 weeks and can prevent vision during this time. These patients are forbidden to travel by plane!
In an emergency that requires general anesthesia for any reason, inform the doctor about this condition in your eye.

If silicone oil is injected into the eye, this silicone stays in the eye for 3-6 months and is then surgically removed. Since the silicone may deteriorate after a while and damage the eye, it must be checked at regular intervals.

Please do not forget to have your check-ups done regularly.

What is Cornea Transplant and When Does One Need It?

Our eyes are divided into two as anterior and posterior parts, so are the diseases experienced in them. The cornea is the transparent layer in front of the iris layer, which is the colored part of the eye, in the front of our eye. After the rays coming to the eye first pass through here, they reach the nerve layer and vision occurs.

The cornea is a transparent tissue and this transparency plays an important role in seeing. If the cornea loses its transparency for different reasons (hereditary diseases, persistent corneal edema after cataract surgery) or becomes deformed (thinning and erection of the cornea), we cannot see clearly.

In such cases, vision can be regained by replacing the cornea with another healthy corneal tissue. This transplant procedure is also called corneal transplant.

Corneal transplantation can be done in three different ways. The entire cornea can be changed, only the top layer can be changed, or only the bottom layer can be changed. What the person needs is determined as a result of the examinations carried out by the specialist doctor.

The most important feature of the cornea that makes it transparent is that it is avascular. The absence of vessels in the tissue provides an important advantage in tissue transplantation. This is why corneal transplants are much more successful than other transplants.

How does Corneal Transplant Work?

The approximate duration of corneal transplant surgery is between 30-40 minutes. However, if there are other operations to be performed at the same time, this period may be longer. The steps of the surgery are as follows:

First of all, local or general anesthesia is applied to the eye according to the doctor's preference. The eye and its surroundings are disinfected and covered with a sterile drape. The center of the cornea is then marked. With a vacuum instrument containing a round blade, an incision is made in the center of the cornea and the center of the cornea is removed.

The cornea to be transplanted is also prepared in accordance with the place where it will be placed. The healthy cornea is sutured to the place where it will be placed. At this point, different sewing techniques can be applied. The decision is made by the doctor after the examinations. The transplant operation is completed with antibiotic drugs applied to the eye.

You may need to stay in the hospital for 4-5 days after standard corneal transplant operations without any complications. This period varies depending on the eye structure of the person or other factors.

The Healing Process after the Corneal Transplant

A protective bandage is placed on the eye on the first day after the surgery. Complaints such as stinging and watering may last for a few weeks following the surgery. The level of vision may not increase immediately. The most important thing to pay attention to after the operation is to follow the doctor's recommendations and to use eye drops regularly.

The first post-operative control is performed in the clinical setting the next day. These checks are then carried out periodically throughout the year. Although these are usually once a month, they can vary according to the situation of the person. Stitches are usually removed 1 year after the surgery. However, this period is something your doctor will decide, so the stitches can sometimes be removed within a few months. It is also at the end of this one year that the full effect can be seen in the eyes.

What You Should be Careful About after the Corneal Transplant

I can list the things to be considered after corneal transplantation as follows:

It is very important to use the prescribed drugs regularly and carefully.

You should not apply any pressure to the eye, and you should not scratch your eye. This is especially important in the first days when the possibility of infection is high.

The protective cap or glasses worn after the surgery should be used as and for the time recommended by the specialist doctor.

Sports and activities that may cause a blow to your eye should be avoided for the period determined by the doctor. This will increase the success of the transplant.

The doctor decides when the stitches will be removed after the surgery. It should be noted that this period may vary between a few months and a year.

Frequently Asked Questions

Although cataracts are most common in older adults, they do not only affect the elderly. Cataracts can also be seen in newborn babies (congenital), diabetes patients, as a result of eye injuries, in those who use cortisone medication, in rheumatism and muscle patients.

One or more of the following symptoms may be a sign of cataract: Decreased vision, scattering in lights, double vision, difficulty in reading, difficulty in distinguishing colors, frequent changes in eye numbers.

Cataract is a progressive disease. If the cataract is not operated on, the level of vision gradually decreases. The only treatment for cataracts is surgery. Therefore, cataract surgery is necessary to prevent complete loss of vision.

Cataract surgery significantly improves night vision. Since one of the first symptoms of cataract is decreased night vision, the intervention will also change this.

No, hospitalization is not required for cataract surgery. What you need to do is to go to the control for an eye examination the next day of the surgery.

Blurred vision is considered normal in the first days after cataract surgery. The recovery period in this first period can vary between 7 and 15 days. During this time, his vision improves to a good level. Full recovery and clear vision occurs at the end of 30 days.

After cataract surgery, no shower is taken that day. You can take a shower the day after the surgery, but you should be very careful that the water does not come into contact with your eyes.

Glaucoma can be divided into 3 groups in terms of its symptoms. The first of these is asymptomatic glaucoma. In this, the person does not have any complaints about eye pressure, he does not experience pain or decrease in vision. In the early stages of the disease, there is no loss in the visual field, and even if it occurs, it cannot be noticed. The second type of glaucoma is symptomatic glaucoma. In addition to eye symptoms such as sudden onset of severe headache, excessive bloodshot eyes, swelling of the eyelids, rapid decrease in vision, seeing rings around lights, there may be complaints such as nausea and vomiting. The third type of glaucoma is infant glaucoma. As the name suggests, this type, which is seen in infants and young children, may have symptoms such as eye size, extreme discomfort from light, tight eyelids and excessive watering.

The presence of glaucoma in a person means that the eye pressure is (usually) 22 mmHg and above and the optic nerve is damaged. Examination of the optic nerve requires investigation of changes in both its structure and function. For this purpose, the eye pressure of the person is measured and visual field examination is performed. The diagnosis of glaucoma is made only after these detailed examinations.

No, this is not true. Even if recovery is not expected in glaucoma surgery, the vision is preserved because it is done to protect the existing healthy nerves. However, if the person has another disease such as cataracts, it is possible for this to progress faster due to changes in intraocular fluid and pressure. Such a decrease in vision is not due to glaucoma, but to the other disease.

Vitrectomy can be applied in the treatment of many diseases such as cleaning the bleeding in the posterior cavity of the eye, treatment of retinal tears and detachments, cleaning of the membranes developing on the retina, yellow spot diseases and removal of foreign bodies in the eye.

If a person who has had vitrectomy surgery has a cataract in his eye and prevents the back of the eye from being seen, the cataract must be corrected in the same session. If the cataract is mild and does not obstruct vision, cataract surgery can be performed in another session. However, since cataract development will accelerate after vitrectomy surgery, some doctors may prefer to operate in the same session, even if the cataract is mild.

Like every surgical procedure, vitrectomy has risks, but it should be known that vitrectomy is a surgery with a high success rate and few complications. The most common complication after surgery is the development of cataract. Apart from this, complications such as bleeding, infection, increased intraocular pressure, recurrence of the disease, retinal tears, and light damage to the retina can also be seen, albeit rarely. But they carry less risk than the disease treated with surgery.

A healthy cornea is removed from the eye of a deceased person. These corneas, which are first examined in terms of infectious diseases, are then transferred to the patients awaiting transplantation. Corneas can be removed within the first 8 hours after death. They can also be kept in special solutions for up to 14 days.

As with every transplant procedure, there is a risk of rejection in corneal transplant. However, since the cornea is a nonvascular tissue, the operation with the lowest rejection reaction among organ transplants is corneal transplantation.

If the transplanted cornea is rejected by the body, it loses its transparency and vision decreases. But the cornea is there, albeit cloudy. Therefore, it does not pose any danger to the eyes. In case of rejection of the cornea, corneal transplantation can be performed again.

This time varies for each patient. Recovery is slower in eyes with vascularity in their own corneas, eyes that have undergone eye surgery, and those with additional diseases. In standard corneal transplant operations, the average hospital stay is 4-5 days.

People who do not work in dusty environments and jobs that require heavy physical strength can start their work 3 weeks after the operation, and students can start their school after 2 weeks. However, since everyone's wound healing and eye structure are different, your rest period can be changed by your doctor.

Each of our organs is very important, but the place of our eyes is probably different for all of us. Our eyes are like our window to the world. That's why it's very important to care about the health of our eyes, and I'm more convinced of this as a result of my research.

Problems can occur in our eyes due to genetic causes, environmental factors such as infection or aging. For this reason, it is important to go to a regular eye doctor examination even if there are no problems or symptoms in your eyes. For the early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases, doctors recommend going for checkups every two years until the age of 50, and every year after the age of 50. It is worth repeating, this is valid when there is no problem in the eye.

Many diseases In this article, I will discuss the most common of these diseases. The most common among these is the disease that is seen in the loss of transparency of our eye lens, which we call cataract. While this disease can be seen genetically, it is more commonly seen as age-related, because our organs age with us. But with the developing medicine and technology, its treatment is quite easy.

Glaucoma, which is called glaucoma, is caused by increased intraocular pressure and unfortunately, its incidence increases over the age of 40. We can think of vitrectomy as a symmetrical cataract. That is, cataract is related to the anterior part of the eye, whereas vitrectomy is related to the posterior part of the eye. The solution to problems such as bleeding and inflammation in the back of the eye is vitrectomy. The transparent layer in front of the colored part of our eye that we see is the cornea. In cases where the rays cannot be transferred to the back of the eye in a healthy way, this may be due to the cornea. In these cases, thanks to modern medicine, this layer can be replaced with a healthy cornea.

You can find detailed information about these diseases and their treatments below.

Cataracts are often known as the disease of the elderly because they mostly occur in people over the age of 60. But it can also be seen earlier due to genetic or other reasons. Therefore, it is important that we have our eyes checked periodically, even if there is no problem in our eyes.

I said that cataracts increase with age. According to the U.S. National Institute of Health, about 5% of people aged 50-54 have cataracts, while about 50% of people aged 75-79 have cataracts, and about 70% of people aged over 80 years.

Cataract manifests itself with symptoms such as double vision, blurred vision, deterioration of night vision, and causes a decrease in vision over time. This disease needs to be treated, and unfortunately, it is not possible to treat cataracts with drugs.

If the cataract has become cloudy in the eye, it can disperse in the eye. In such a case, it is necessary to undergo surgery in order not to face problems up to blindness. In congenital cataract disease, surgery should be performed more quickly.

If you have any of the above-mentioned symptoms related to vision in your eyes, I recommend that you contact specialist doctors in a safe institution and have your surgery as soon as possible.

In cataract surgery, the dulled lens inside your eye is replaced with a clear artificial lens. You do not feel any pain or pain during the surgery, you only feel a little pressure. A normal cataract surgery does not take long, it takes about 15 minutes. It is usually an outpatient procedure and does not require a hospital stay. The operation is as follows.

A small section is made in the cornea. A high-frequency ultrasound device or laser is used to cut the opacified lens into small segments. Laser is more common now as the laser is generally widespread and safe. The opaque parts of the lens are then carefully removed from the eye. After these opaque parts are removed, the specialist doctor places the artificial lens behind the pupil. That's it for the surgery.

The section in the cornea heals spontaneously without the need for stitches. After the surgery, a protective shield is placed over the eye. If you have cataract disease in both eyes, these are done sequentially and there is a time between 1 and 3 weeks.

A standard cataract surgery normally takes only 15 minutes. However, with instructions for preparation, surgery, and rest, you may need to stay in the operating room for 90 minutes or more. But fear not, this is not the duration of the process itself, so you are resting there.

You will need someone to accompany you after cataract surgery because you are given special glasses to protect your eyes from sunlight and other bright lights. Medicated eye drops should be used for 3 to 4 weeks. For your eye health, you need to wear a protective eye shield while you sleep for about a week. As your eye heals, you may experience some eye redness and blurred vision for the first few days or, depending on your condition, for a few weeks.

With these restrictions, you can use your eyes from the first day.

In order for the healing process to be successful after cataract surgery, you need to pay attention to certain points.
Especially during the first two weeks, you need to stay away from strenuous activities and lifting more than 15 kilos in your daily life or while doing sports.

Again, for a few weeks, you should avoid bending, exercising and activities that may strain the eyes.

During the healing process, you should not contact your eyes with water. It's best to keep your eyes closed or wear large swimming goggles while showering, as this can cause an infection. It is also recommended to stay away from activities such as swimming and spending time in the jacuzzi for at least two weeks.

It is best for your eye health not to expose your eyes to substances such as dust and dirt that may cause infection, and to stay away from such activities.

Perhaps the most important thing to pay attention to is to follow your doctor's recommendations and not miss your checkups.

Glaucoma or glaucoma is the deterioration of the optic nerves as a result of increased intraocular pressure. There is a fluid in the back of our eye, and this fluid is both produced and excreted at the same time. This liquid is not the tear in front of our eyes. In glaucoma, an obstruction occurs in the outflow of this intraocular fluid, and the resulting increased intraocular fluid causes an increase in intraocular pressure. Unfortunately, this blockage cannot be seen with the naked eye, and the increased intraocular pressure also damages the optic nerve by damaging the nerves. It is very important that this disease is diagnosed and treated early in regular eye check-ups, as it is irreversible after the damage has been completely experienced. This disease can lead to blindness.

Glaucoma is most commonly associated with age. If you have a family history, doctors advise you to be especially careful. Although there are two types, I am basing the age-related glaucoma type here as their processes and symptoms are similar.

The most obvious symptoms of glaucoma include blurred vision, severe eye pain, headache, seeing rainbows around lights, as well as nausea and vomiting. Since early diagnosis is very important in the treatment of glaucoma, if these symptoms are present, doctors recommend seeing a specialist and not interrupting routine controls.

Here's the importance of it. An abnormal increase in intraocular pressure, which is detected by routine eye examination by an ophthalmologist, may be the initial symptom of eye pressure. But that doesn't necessarily mean you have glaucoma. For glaucoma, the increase in intraocular pressure must be accompanied by deterioration of the optic nerve.

There are three types of treatment, depending on how advanced the glaucoma is and how quickly it progresses. Since glaucoma is the inability to expel the intraocular fluid, all treatment methods are aimed at providing this. The first of these is drug therapy. Depending on the condition of glaucoma, drops or oral medications are used in drug treatment. However, since these drugs are generally heavy drugs, they also have side effects and your doctor will tell you the best method in this regard.

In cases where drug therapy does not stop the progression of glaucoma, laser therapy is applied. Laser therapy can reduce intraocular pressures, which are not very high, to normal levels. However, the duration of effect in laser treatment is usually 2-3 years and the effect of the treatment decreases within 5 years. As far as I've learned from my research, laser therapy is mostly applied when it is desired to save time in patients who do not comply with drug therapy or where drug therapy does not work, but cannot be operated on.

If the intraocular pressure cannot be reduced to a normal level despite all the drugs used, if the damage to the optic nerve is progressively progressing and the visual field is getting worse, surgery is required. I would like to say that in cases where the operation is not performed, the person loses his sight day by day. Although there are different surgical techniques that vary according to the structure of the eye and the value of the intraocular pressure, the purpose of all of them is to facilitate the outflow of intraocular fluid, which is difficult to get out of the eye and causes an increase in intraocular pressure.

The most important thing I learned in my research on glaucoma surgery is that the success rate is very high, and the risks are very low thanks to modern technology. I'm sure this information will help many people as well as me.

If the damage to the optic nerve is progressively progressing in a person with glaucoma, surgery is required. Here, I need to point out that the damage to the optic nerves cannot be reversed by surgery, so the damage to the eye until then is unfortunately permanent. The surgery is performed to prevent further damage and to save the healthy nerves found.

Glaucoma surgery is performed using general anesthesia in infants and children and local anesthesia in adults in the standard procedure. You only feel the pressure applied to your eyes in surgeries where there is no pain or ache. Glaucoma surgery takes about 30 minutes.

Although there are different surgical techniques, all of them open a channel that will allow the intraocular fluid to leave the eye easily. In rare cases, when the opened canal is closed by healthy cells and the intraocular pressure rises again, re-operation may be required.

In cases where this standard surgery does not produce results, tubes or artificial channels are placed in the eye. This tube placement is usually applied in more severe and stubborn cases. A bandage is put on the eyes for 24 hours for protection after the surgery.

The most important thing is the follow-up after the surgery. In some patients after the surgery, it may be necessary to continue the use of medication or repeat surgeries.

Recovery after glaucoma surgery takes at least 2-3 weeks, but it will take that long for you to return to your normal life. This is rather the amount of time doctors give for a healthier vision assessment.

After the surgery, the eyes stay closed for one night and open the next day. You stay away from activities that will make you exert effort for the first 24 hours. After your eyes are opened, you can continue your daily activities, read a book, watch television. It usually takes 3-4 days for you to return to your normal life completely.

It is recommended to use a protective shield while you sleep to prevent damage to your eyes for a week after the surgery.
Some patients may experience a temporary decrease in vision for a few days following glaucoma surgery, but this is completely normal. If you follow your doctor's recommendations, your vision will return to its pre-operative level within 2-3 weeks at the latest.

After glaucoma surgery, there are some points to be considered in order to increase the success rate of the operation.

The most important of these issues is to follow your doctor's recommendations and not to delay them if they have given you medication.

Physical activities such as sports, housework or work should be avoided as much as possible for a week after the surgery.
Recommended eye drops should not be missed.

If you are someone who works in heavy jobs or in dusty environments, it will be very good to take a 1-month leave from your workplace.
 
If you are a person who does not have a heavy workload and works in relatively clean environments such as offices, you can return to work after 2 weeks.
 
If you are using contact lenses, it is recommended to take a break of 1 month. In addition, you take a break from sports such as swimming and diving for a period of 1 month.

Of course, all these and their durations are determined by your doctor's examinations.

Eye diseases are divided into two depending on the structure of the eye. Since the structure of the eye is divided into anterior and posterior parts, diseases are classified according to whether they are in the anterior or posterior part. The task of the anterior part of the eye is to ensure that the image reaches the posterior part, while the posterior part transmits neural messages to the brain, so the posterior part undertakes the most important task in our vision. This means that the errors in the back are more important.

Vitrectomy surgery is the name of the operation performed with the help of special tools on the “vitre gel” and “retina” in the back of the eye, with incisions smaller than 1 mm in case of problems or diseases.

This means this. Vitrectomy surgery is the name of an operation, not a disease such as glaucoma or other eye diseases. For this reason, this surgery is applied with great success in many diseases and conditions today.

Since vitrectomy is the name of surgery, not a disease, this surgery is applied in many conditions and diseases. As a result of the information I obtained from the doctors, I can count the following:
 
In advanced pathologies seen in diabetes,

In case of bleeding inside the eye,

In the wrinkles in the visual center,

In case of rupture in the neural network layer of the eye,

When there is a hole in the center of vision,

In cases where a foreign object enters the eye as a result of eye injuries,

In cases where there is a lens remnant complication after cataract surgery,

In case of infection in the eye after cataract and other eye surgeries.

As you can see, vitrectomy surgery can be performed in many cases and therefore it is a very advanced surgery with a high success rate.

Vitrectomy surgery is performed under local or general anesthesia, depending on your disease or condition. In addition, they are stitched or unstitched depending on the size of the cut.

In vitrectomy surgery performed under local or general anesthesia, the vitreous cavity of the eye and the retina are reached with 3 holes of approximately 0.5 mm opened in the eye wall. After the gel (vitreous) in the eye is cleaned with a device that can make 1500-6000 incisions per minute, the problem in the retina is eliminated. But this process varies according to the disease of the eye.

After the operation, there is redness, blood and sensitivity in the eye. However, these complaints go away with each day in a week. The most important issue during this period is the regular use of the drugs prescribed by the doctor. The stinging and itching in the eye are considered completely normal, and these go away as the incisions made for surgery heal.

In the surgery, liquid, air or silicone can be injected into the eye, depending on the type or severity of the disease. Air or silicone continues the treatment of the disease in the eye after surgery as long as it remains in the eye. If air is left in the eye, the absorption of air can vary between 1-3 weeks. During this time, it is strictly forbidden to board a plane, which may cause pressure changes, and to travel to regions that are very high above sea level, such as plateaus.

There is no such danger in silicon. However, while the air is sucked in by itself, the silicone stays there unless it is removed with a second surgery from the eye and is only removed with a second surgery. Although there are advantages to keeping the silicone in the eye for a long time, silicones that stay longer than 6 months start to damage. Therefore, these silicones must be removed from the eye before this period.

Since all processes vary according to individuals and eye disease, your doctor will inform you of the most accurate process.

Since the eyes are sensitive after vitrectomy, the healing process should be very careful. Although what I write here may vary from person to person, the general points I get from doctors are as follows.

Until the next day's control after the operation, the eyes should remain closed unless otherwise stated.

Eyes should not be touched by water for a week, and only the neck down should be washed while taking a shower.

During this period, the eye should never be touched or wiped.

Medications prescribed after the operation should be used regularly and according to the recipe.

Head position after the operation is important. It is very important to follow the doctor's recommendations in this regard.

If gas is injected into the eye during the operation, vision may be low; A black shadow can be felt in front of your eyes. The given gas stays in the eye for 2-6 weeks and can prevent vision during this time. These patients are forbidden to travel by plane!
In an emergency that requires general anesthesia for any reason, inform the doctor about this condition in your eye.

If silicone oil is injected into the eye, this silicone stays in the eye for 3-6 months and is then surgically removed. Since the silicone may deteriorate after a while and damage the eye, it must be checked at regular intervals.

Please do not forget to have your check-ups done regularly.

Our eyes are divided into two as anterior and posterior parts, so are the diseases experienced in them. The cornea is the transparent layer in front of the iris layer, which is the colored part of the eye, in the front of our eye. After the rays coming to the eye first pass through here, they reach the nerve layer and vision occurs.

The cornea is a transparent tissue and this transparency plays an important role in seeing. If the cornea loses its transparency for different reasons (hereditary diseases, persistent corneal edema after cataract surgery) or becomes deformed (thinning and erection of the cornea), we cannot see clearly.

In such cases, vision can be regained by replacing the cornea with another healthy corneal tissue. This transplant procedure is also called corneal transplant.

Corneal transplantation can be done in three different ways. The entire cornea can be changed, only the top layer can be changed, or only the bottom layer can be changed. What the person needs is determined as a result of the examinations carried out by the specialist doctor.

The most important feature of the cornea that makes it transparent is that it is avascular. The absence of vessels in the tissue provides an important advantage in tissue transplantation. This is why corneal transplants are much more successful than other transplants.

The approximate duration of corneal transplant surgery is between 30-40 minutes. However, if there are other operations to be performed at the same time, this period may be longer. The steps of the surgery are as follows:

First of all, local or general anesthesia is applied to the eye according to the doctor's preference. The eye and its surroundings are disinfected and covered with a sterile drape. The center of the cornea is then marked. With a vacuum instrument containing a round blade, an incision is made in the center of the cornea and the center of the cornea is removed.

The cornea to be transplanted is also prepared in accordance with the place where it will be placed. The healthy cornea is sutured to the place where it will be placed. At this point, different sewing techniques can be applied. The decision is made by the doctor after the examinations. The transplant operation is completed with antibiotic drugs applied to the eye.

You may need to stay in the hospital for 4-5 days after standard corneal transplant operations without any complications. This period varies depending on the eye structure of the person or other factors.

A protective bandage is placed on the eye on the first day after the surgery. Complaints such as stinging and watering may last for a few weeks following the surgery. The level of vision may not increase immediately. The most important thing to pay attention to after the operation is to follow the doctor's recommendations and to use eye drops regularly.

The first post-operative control is performed in the clinical setting the next day. These checks are then carried out periodically throughout the year. Although these are usually once a month, they can vary according to the situation of the person. Stitches are usually removed 1 year after the surgery. However, this period is something your doctor will decide, so the stitches can sometimes be removed within a few months. It is also at the end of this one year that the full effect can be seen in the eyes.

I can list the things to be considered after corneal transplantation as follows:

It is very important to use the prescribed drugs regularly and carefully.

You should not apply any pressure to the eye, and you should not scratch your eye. This is especially important in the first days when the possibility of infection is high.

The protective cap or glasses worn after the surgery should be used as and for the time recommended by the specialist doctor.

Sports and activities that may cause a blow to your eye should be avoided for the period determined by the doctor. This will increase the success of the transplant.

The doctor decides when the stitches will be removed after the surgery. It should be noted that this period may vary between a few months and a year.

Although cataracts are most common in older adults, they do not only affect the elderly. Cataracts can also be seen in newborn babies (congenital), diabetes patients, as a result of eye injuries, in those who use cortisone medication, in rheumatism and muscle patients.

One or more of the following symptoms may be a sign of cataract: Decreased vision, scattering in lights, double vision, difficulty in reading, difficulty in distinguishing colors, frequent changes in eye numbers.

Cataract is a progressive disease. If the cataract is not operated on, the level of vision gradually decreases. The only treatment for cataracts is surgery. Therefore, cataract surgery is necessary to prevent complete loss of vision.

Cataract surgery significantly improves night vision. Since one of the first symptoms of cataract is decreased night vision, the intervention will also change this.

No, hospitalization is not required for cataract surgery. What you need to do is to go to the control for an eye examination the next day of the surgery.

Blurred vision is considered normal in the first days after cataract surgery. The recovery period in this first period can vary between 7 and 15 days. During this time, his vision improves to a good level. Full recovery and clear vision occurs at the end of 30 days.

After cataract surgery, no shower is taken that day. You can take a shower the day after the surgery, but you should be very careful that the water does not come into contact with your eyes.

Glaucoma can be divided into 3 groups in terms of its symptoms. The first of these is asymptomatic glaucoma. In this, the person does not have any complaints about eye pressure, he does not experience pain or decrease in vision. In the early stages of the disease, there is no loss in the visual field, and even if it occurs, it cannot be noticed. The second type of glaucoma is symptomatic glaucoma. In addition to eye symptoms such as sudden onset of severe headache, excessive bloodshot eyes, swelling of the eyelids, rapid decrease in vision, seeing rings around lights, there may be complaints such as nausea and vomiting. The third type of glaucoma is infant glaucoma. As the name suggests, this type, which is seen in infants and young children, may have symptoms such as eye size, extreme discomfort from light, tight eyelids and excessive watering.

The presence of glaucoma in a person means that the eye pressure is (usually) 22 mmHg and above and the optic nerve is damaged. Examination of the optic nerve requires investigation of changes in both its structure and function. For this purpose, the eye pressure of the person is measured and visual field examination is performed. The diagnosis of glaucoma is made only after these detailed examinations.

No, this is not true. Even if recovery is not expected in glaucoma surgery, the vision is preserved because it is done to protect the existing healthy nerves. However, if the person has another disease such as cataracts, it is possible for this to progress faster due to changes in intraocular fluid and pressure. Such a decrease in vision is not due to glaucoma, but to the other disease.

Vitrectomy can be applied in the treatment of many diseases such as cleaning the bleeding in the posterior cavity of the eye, treatment of retinal tears and detachments, cleaning of the membranes developing on the retina, yellow spot diseases and removal of foreign bodies in the eye.

If a person who has had vitrectomy surgery has a cataract in his eye and prevents the back of the eye from being seen, the cataract must be corrected in the same session. If the cataract is mild and does not obstruct vision, cataract surgery can be performed in another session. However, since cataract development will accelerate after vitrectomy surgery, some doctors may prefer to operate in the same session, even if the cataract is mild.

Like every surgical procedure, vitrectomy has risks, but it should be known that vitrectomy is a surgery with a high success rate and few complications. The most common complication after surgery is the development of cataract. Apart from this, complications such as bleeding, infection, increased intraocular pressure, recurrence of the disease, retinal tears, and light damage to the retina can also be seen, albeit rarely. But they carry less risk than the disease treated with surgery.

A healthy cornea is removed from the eye of a deceased person. These corneas, which are first examined in terms of infectious diseases, are then transferred to the patients awaiting transplantation. Corneas can be removed within the first 8 hours after death. They can also be kept in special solutions for up to 14 days.

As with every transplant procedure, there is a risk of rejection in corneal transplant. However, since the cornea is a nonvascular tissue, the operation with the lowest rejection reaction among organ transplants is corneal transplantation.

If the transplanted cornea is rejected by the body, it loses its transparency and vision decreases. But the cornea is there, albeit cloudy. Therefore, it does not pose any danger to the eyes. In case of rejection of the cornea, corneal transplantation can be performed again.

This time varies for each patient. Recovery is slower in eyes with vascularity in their own corneas, eyes that have undergone eye surgery, and those with additional diseases. In standard corneal transplant operations, the average hospital stay is 4-5 days.

People who do not work in dusty environments and jobs that require heavy physical strength can start their work 3 weeks after the operation, and students can start their school after 2 weeks. However, since everyone's wound healing and eye structure are different, your rest period can be changed by your doctor.

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